Downs v. US, 522 F.2d 990 (6th Cir. 1975)-Officers involved in hostage negotiations are better served civilly when force is not immediately necessary, to wait out the hostage takers. The Court stated: Where did exist, from foresight, "a better-suited alternative to protecting the hostages' well-being." That choice was not to intervene forcibly but to continue the " waiting game."
Riley v. California, 13-132 (SCOTUS 2014)-The Court held that police cannot conduct a search incident to arrest of a cellular phone.
1. Digital data stored on a cell phone cannot itself be used as a weapon to harm an arresting officer or to effectuate the arrestee’s escape.
2. Officers can seize the phone and take necessary steps to ensure the information on it is not remote wiped.
3. The fact that an arrestee has diminished privacy interests does not mean that the Fourth Amendment falls out of the picture entirely. Not every search “is acceptable solely because a person is in custody.”
4. A cellular phone is a device with large data storage capacity. It contains information that goes way beyond the limited contents of a person's pockets. It contains months if not years worth of email, photographs, maps, calendars, voice recordings, text messages, diaries, financial information, and etc.
5. The information range of cellular phones also would allow the police to intrude into the privacy of a person beyond the information on the just phone to information stored on remote computer servers.
The vast amount of data that could be collected by police through a person's cellular phone necessitates the need for a search warrant in all but a few unforseen exigent circumstances.
Weeks v. United States, 232 U. S. 383-The police entered Weeks' home without a warrant twice and searched it for papers indicating Weeks was using the mail to commit crimes. The Court held that the warrantless entry and seizure of items from a private residence is a violation of the Fourth Amendment and the evidence shall be excluded in the federal case.
Wong Sun v. United States, 371 U. S. 471 (1963)- The "exclusionary rule" to evidence was extended to also include evidence obtained from a third party as a result of information acquired during the initial unlawful police conduct.